FESTINGER AND CARLSMITH 1959 PDF

Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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This question was included because there was a chance that differences might emerge. The questions are as follows:. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58 2 Method Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex.

Would the subject have any desire to participate in another similar experiment?

The experimenter explained that the experiment itself usually took a little over an hour to conduct but was scheduled for two hours giving some people from Introductory Psychology an opportunity to interview some of the participants afterwards. Forced compliance theory is essentially a subset of cognitive dissonance theory. European Journal of Social Psychology. Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments.

As you can imagine, participant’s attitudes toward this task were highly negative. From our point of view the experiment had hardly started. In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of the dissonant cognition smoking is bad for one’s health. The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. Recently Festinger proposed a theory concerning cognitive dissonance from which come a number of derivations about opinion change following forced compliance.

The private opinions of the subjects concerning the experience were then determined. When they arrived at the interviewer’s office, the E asked the interviewer whether or not he wanted to talk to the S.

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The study built on previous research that stated when individuals are not granted the freedom to agree or disagree with the task, signs of dissonance are not detected. Is it a perception as ‘cognitive’ suggestsor a feeling, or a feeling about a perception? It emerged in the field of social psychology. When they were asked to lie about how they truly feel about the task, they force themselves to feel what they were induced to feel and express.

The experimenter told the subject that the “Measures of Performance” experiment was looking into the relative performance of those who had been given no introduction to those in Group B who had been given the positive introduction.

Forced compliance theory – Wikipedia

If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said. A laboratory experiment was designed to test these derivations. In this study, researchers manipulated three variables that were expected to influence attitude change under compulsion.

Ashmore and Collins conducted an experiment called “Studies in Forced Compliance: Their job is to give the next group of participants a delightful introduction of the tasks they have previously performed. However, there is a problem from a scientific point of view, because we cannot physically observe cognitive dissonanceand therefore we cannot objectively measure it re: After reading the reports about the various products, individuals rated the products again.

When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors dissonancesomething must change to eliminate the dissonance. Forced compliance theory is the idea that authority or some other perceived higher-ranking person can force a lower-ranked individual to make statements or perform acts that violate their better judgment.

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Forced compliance theory

This article is a part of the guide: Findings Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions. The subject was then told that the experimenter ‘thought’ that the next “Group B” subject actually another associate of the experimenter was female and was waiting to be given the positive introduction to the tasks ahead. A fraction of the subjects were thanked and let go after being interviewed by another experimenter regarding ways on how the presentation of the boring tasks can be improved for future purposes.

We would also like to acknowledge the help of Ruth Smith and Marilyn M. He did so in order to make it convincing that this was [p. After two minutes the E returned, asked the girl to go into the experimental room, thanked the S for talking to the girl, wrote down his phone number to continue the fiction that we might call on him again in the future and then said: The secretary had left the office.

The interview consisted of four questions, on each of which the S was first encouraged to talk about the matter and was then asked to rate his opinion or reaction on an point scale. The 71 subjects were informed that the experiment focuses on the “Measures of Performance.

We wish to thank Leonard Hommel, Judson Mills, and Robert Terwilliger for their help in designing and carrying out the experiment.